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Cryptic diversity and species delimitation in the Xiphinema americanum-group complex (Nematoda: Longidoridae) as inferred from morphometrics and molecular markers

AuthorsArchidona-Yuste, Antonio; Navas Cortés, Juan Antonio ; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C. ; Palomares Rius, Juan E. ; Castillo, Pablo
Issue Date1-Feb-2016
PublisherOxford University Press
CitationZoological Journal of the Linnean Society 176(2): 231-265 (2016)
AbstractThe Xiphinema americanum-group constitutes a complex of about 55 species of polyphagous plant-ectoparasitic nematodes with a worldwide distribution. This group of plant-parasitic nematodes is one of the most difficult dagger nematode species complexes for diagnosis because the morphology is very conservative and morphometric characters often overlap. We conducted nematode surveys in cultivated and wild olives in southern Spain from 2012 to 2014, from which we identified 16 nematode populations of the X. americanum-group, five of which were tentatively identified as belonging to three new species and are described herein as Xiphinema plesiopachtaicum sp. nov.,Xiphinema vallense sp. nov., and Xiphinema astaregiense sp. nov., and 11 populations belonging to nine known species: Xiphinema brevisicum, Xiphinema duriense, Xiphinema incertum, Xiphinema luci, Xiphinema madeirense, Xiphinema opisthohysterum, Xiphinema pachtaicum, Xiphinema parapachydermum, and Xiphinema rivesi. A phenetic study based on multivariate factor analyses was developed to compare some of these related species by using morphometric features. In the factor analysis the first four factors accounted for 73.1% of the total variance of the selected characters, identifying body length, body length/maximum body width (a), body length/pharyngeal length (b), body length/tail length (c), and tail length/body width at anus (c′) ratios, distance from anterior end to vulva as percentage of body length (V), stylet length, oral aperture-guiding ring distance, and lip region width as key morphometric characters to differentiate a restricted set of species within the X.pachtaicum-subgroup that includes X.plesiopachtaicum sp. nov. and X.vallense sp. nov. Multivariate analysis of variance using these specific characters allowed to differentiate species in the X.pachtaicum complex or groups of them using morphometric characters (body length, a, b, c, c′, V, stylet length, lip region width, oral aperture-guiding ring distance, female tail length, and hyaline region length). Phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ribosomal DNA genes [D2-D3 expansion segments of large ribosomal subunit 28S, and internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)] and the protein-coding mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (coxI) were congruent, showing two main clades separating most of the species of X.americanum-subgroup ‘sensu stricto’ from the X.pachtaicum-subgroup. Agreement between phylogenetic trees and some morphological characters (viz. total stylet length, vulva position, and a ratio) were tested by reconstruction of their histories on rRNA-based trees using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Thus, integrative taxonomy, based on a combination of multivariate morphological and molecular analyses constitutes a new insight into the identification of X.americanum-group species.
Publisher version (URL)http://doi.org/10.1111/zoj.12316
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