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Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Octopus vulgaris: Molecular Cloning and Functional Characterisation of a Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase and an Elongation of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acid 4 Protein

AuthorsMonroig, Óscar ; de Llanos, Rosa ; Varó, Inmaculada ; Hontoria, Francisco ; Tocher, Douglas R.; Puig, Sergi ; Navarro, Juan Carlos
Issue Date21-Mar-2017
PublisherMultidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
CitationMarine Drugs 15(3): 82 (2017)
AbstractPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been acknowledged as essential nutrients for cephalopods but the specific PUFAs that satisfy the physiological requirements are unknown. To expand our previous investigations on characterisation of desaturases and elongases involved in the biosynthesis of PUFAs and hence determine the dietary PUFA requirements in cephalopods, this study aimed to investigate the roles that a stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd) and an elongation of very long-chain fatty acid 4 (Elovl4) protein play in the biosynthesis of essential fatty acids (FAs). Our results confirmed the <i>Octopus vulgaris</i> Scd is a ∆9 desaturase with relatively high affinity towards saturated FAs with ≥ C<sub>18</sub> chain lengths. Scd was unable to desaturate 20:1<i>n-</i>15 (<sup>∆5</sup>20:1) suggesting that its role in the biosynthesis of non-methylene interrupted FAs (NMI FAs) is limited to the introduction of the first unsaturation at ∆9 position. Interestingly, the previously characterised ∆5 fatty acyl desaturase was indeed able to convert 20:1<i>n-</i>9 (<sup>∆11</sup>20:1) to <sup>∆5,11</sup>20:2, an NMI FA previously detected in octopus nephridium. Additionally, Elovl4 was able to mediate the production of 24:5<i>n-</i>3 and thus can contribute to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) biosynthesis through the Sprecher pathway. Moreover, the octopus Elovl4 was confirmed to play a key role in the biosynthesis of very long-chain (>C<sub>24</sub>) PUFAs.
Publisher version (URL)https://doi.org/10.3390/md15030082
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