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Título : A CMOS Digital SiPM With Focal-Plane Light-Spot Statistics for DOI Computation
Autor : Vornicu, I.; Bandi, Franco; Carmona-Galán, R. ; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ángel
Palabras clave : Single photon avalanche diode (SPAD)
Digital silicon photomultiplier (d-SiPM)
Time-of-flight (ToF)
Focal-plane processing
Scintillation light spot dispersion
Fecha de publicación : 2017
Editor: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Citación : IEEE Sensors Journal, 17(3): 632-643 (2017)
Resumen: Silicon photomultipliers can be used to infer the depth-of-interaction (DOI) in scintillator crystals. DOI can help to improve the quality of the positron emission tomography images affected by the parallax error. This paper contemplates the computation of DOI based on the standard deviation of the light distribution. The simulations have been carried out by GAMOS. The design of the proposed digital silicon photomultiplier (d-SiPM) with focal plane detection of the center of mass position and dispersion of the scintillation light is presented. The d-SiPM shares the same off-chip time-to-digital converter such that each pixel can be individually connected to it. A miniature d-SiPM 8×8 single-photon avalanche-diode (SPAD) array has been fabricated as a proof of concept. The SPADs along each row and column are connected through an OR combination technique. It has 256×256μm2 without peripherals circuits and pads. The fill factor is about 11%. The average dark count rate of the mini d-SiPM is of 240 kHz. The average photon detection efficiency is 5% at 480 nm wavelength, room temperature, and 0.9 V excess voltage. The dynamic range is of 96 dB. The sensor array features a time resolution of 212 ps. The photon-timing SNR is 81 dB. The focal plane statistics of the light-spot has been proved as well by measurements.
Versión del editor: https://doi.org/10.1109/JSEN.2016.2632200
URI : http://hdl.handle.net/10261/147763
DOI: 10.1109/JSEN.2016.2632200
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