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dc.contributor.authorRighton, Davides_ES
dc.contributor.authorMetcalf, Jessica L.es_ES
dc.contributor.authorLobón-Cerviá, Javieres_ES
dc.identifier.citationScience Advances 2(10): e1501694 (2016)es_ES
dc.descriptionThis is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license.-- et al.es_ES
dc.description.abstractThe spawning migration of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) to the Sargasso Sea is one of the greatest animal migrations. However, the duration and route of the migration remain uncertain. Using fishery data from 20 rivers across Europe, we show that most eels begin their oceanic migration between August and December. We used electronic tagging techniques to map the oceanic migration from eels released from four regions in Europe. Of 707 eels tagged, we received 206 data sets. Many migrations ended soon after release because of predation events, but we were able to reconstruct in detail the migration routes of >80 eels. The route extended from western mainland Europe to the Azores region, more than 5000 km toward the Sargasso Sea. All eels exhibited diel vertical migrations, moving from deeper water during the day into shallower water at night. The range of migration speeds was 3 to 47 km day−1. Using data from larval surveys in the Sargasso Sea, we show that spawning likely begins in December and peaks in February. Synthesizing these results, we show that the timing of autumn escapement and the rate of migration are inconsistent with the century-long held assumption that eels spawn as a single reproductive cohort in the springtime following their escapement. Instead, we suggest that European eels adopt a mixed migratory strategy, with some individuals able to achieve a rapid migration, whereas others arrive only in time for the following spawning season. Our results have consequences for eel management.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipMost of the work described in this paper was funded under Grant Agreement GOCE-2008212133 (EELIAD) of the European Union FP7 research program on the environment (including climate change) and prepared under project no. 212133 (eeliad). National and regional governments also provided in-kind funding to support the work including the U.K. Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (to D.R., J.D.M., and A.W.); the French Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, and Energy (to E.A.); the German Ministry of Agriculture and Environment of the federal state Saxony-Anhalt; the German Ministry of Agriculture, Environment, and Consumer Protection Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (to J.S. and U.B.); the Inland Fisheries Ireland (to P.G.); the Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (to F.Ø.); the Swedish Board of Fisheries (latterly Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences to H.W. and N.S.); the Villum Kann Rasmussen/Elisabeth and Knud Petersen’s Foundations (to K.A.); the Fundo Social Europeu/Ministério da Educação e Ciência; and the Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation (FCT) through PhD grant PD/BD/52603/2014 (to M.V.). In-kind support was provided by the Consejeria de Medio Ambiente de la Generalitat de Valencia, Spain.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipWe acknowledge support of the publication fee by the CSIC Open Access Publication Support Initiative through its Unit of Information Resources for Research (URICI).es_ES
dc.publisherAmerican Association for the Advancement of Sciencees_ES
dc.relation.isversionofPublisher's versiones_ES
dc.titleEmpirical observations of the spawning migration of European eels: The long and dangerous road to the Sargasso Seaes_ES
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer reviewedes_ES
dc.contributor.funderEuropean Commissiones_ES
dc.contributor.funderDepartment for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (UK)es_ES
dc.contributor.funderMinistère de l'Écologie, du Développement durable et de l'Énergie (France)es_ES
dc.contributor.funderFederal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (Germany)es_ES
dc.contributor.funderNorwegian Institute for Nature Researches_ES
dc.contributor.funderInstitute of Marine Research (Sweden)es_ES
dc.contributor.funderFundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (Portugal)es_ES
dc.contributor.funderMinistério da Educação e Ciência (Portugal)es_ES
dc.contributor.funderGeneralitat Valencianaes_ES
dc.contributor.funderCSIC - Unidad de Recursos de Información Científica para la Investigación (URICI)es_ES
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