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Hydrophilicity and flexibility of the spacer as critical parameters on the aggregation behavior of long alkyl chain cationic gemini surfactants in aqueous solution

AutorGarcía, María Teresa ; Kaczerewska, Olga; Ribosa, Isabel; Brycki, Bogumil; Materna, Paulina; Drgas, Malgorzata
Palabras claveSurfactants
Gemini surfactants
Alkyl chains
Fecha de publicación27-ene-2017
CitaciónJournal of Molecular Liquids 230: 453–460 (2017)
ResumenSeries of quaternary ammonium-based gemini surfactants with long alkyl chains (C12 and C18) containing different spacers and substituents attached to the polar head group have been synthesized and their aggregation properties in aqueous solution examined. The effect of the hydrophobic chain, the nature and structure of the spacer group and the polarity of the head group on the aggregation behavior of such dimeric surfactants has been investigated. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) values of gemini surfactants in aqueous solution were determined by conductivity, steady state fluorescence and potentiometric measurements. The size of aggregates formed by investigated amphiphiles above the cmc in aqueous solution was examined by dynamic light scattering. Gemini surfactants show cmc values significantly lower than those of comparable single chain surfactants. The tendency of trimeric surfactants with a rigid spacer to form aggregates is higher than that of the corresponding dimeric surfactants. As occurs for monomeric ionic surfactants, the cmc of gemini surfactants decreases with the elongation of the hydrophobic chain. However, the effect of lengthening the alkyl chain on the cmc depends on the structure of the spacer. C12 gemini surfactants with a rigid hydrophobic spacer exhibit cmc higher than those containing a flexible hydrophobic spacer. For gemini surfactants with C18 alkyl chains this effect is even more pronounced and leads to differences in cmc values greater than one order of magnitude. The structure of the spacer, flexible or rigid chain, has been found to be a critical parameter on the self-assembly of long chain gemini surfactants. Spherical micelles are spontaneously formed above the cmc for C12 gemini surfactants, whereas trimeric and C18 gemini surfactants seems to form vesicle-like aggregates when self-aggregation occurs.
Versión del editordx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2017.01.053
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