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Bromine enrichment in marsh sediments as a marker of environmental changes driven by Grand Solar Minima and anthropogenic activity (Caminha, NW of Portugal).

Autor Moreno, João; Fatela, F.; Leorri, E.; Araújo, María Fátima; Moreno Lucas, Félix ; Rosa Arranz, José M. de la; Freitas, M. Conceição; Valente, Teresa; Corbett, D. Reide
Palabras clave Bromine
Tidal marsh
Biogenic CH3Br emissions
Solar activity
Anthropogenic impacts
NW Iberia
Fecha de publicación 15-feb-2015
Citación Science of the Total Environment (506-507): 554-566 (2015)
ResumenA sediment core collected in Caminha tidal marsh, NW Portugal, was used to assess bromine (Br) signal over the last ca. 1700 years. The Br temporal variability reflects its close relationship with soil/sediment organic matter (OM) and also alterations in Br biogeochemical recycling in marsh environment. The highest Br enrichment in sediments was found during the Maunder Solar Minimum, a major solar event characterized by lower irradiance (TSI) and temperature, increased cloudiness and albedo. The obtained results suggest that those climate-induced changes weakened the natural mechanisms that promote Br biochemical transformations, driven by both living plants metabolism and plant litter degradation, with the ensuing generation of volatile methyl bromide (CH3Br). It seems that the prevailing climate conditions during the Maunder favoured the retention of more Br in marsh ecosystem, ultimately decreasing the biogenic Br emissions to the atmosphere. During the 20th century, the Br pattern in sediments appears to mirror likewise anthropogenic sources. The significant correlation (p < 0.05) between Br/OM ratios and Pb contents in sediments after 1934 suggests a common source. This is most probably related with the rise, massive consumption and prohibition of leaded gasoline, where ethylene dibromide was added as lead scavenger to antiknock mixtures. More regionally, the concerted use of flame retardants on forest fire management, covering the 1980s through mid-1990s in the north of Portugal and Galicia, could be responsible for the observed increase of sediment Br (relatively to Pb) pool of this tidal marsh. Although man-made brominated compounds are being phased-out since the inception of the 1992 Montreal Protocol, the Caminha tidal marsh sedimentary record showed that Br levels only started to decline after 2002.
Descripción 13 páginas.-- 4 figuras.-- 6 tablas.-- 100 referencias.-- 3 apéndices
Versión del editorhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.11.062
URI http://hdl.handle.net/10261/131787
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