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dc.contributor.authorFernández, Victoria-
dc.contributor.authorEichert, Thomas-
dc.identifier.citationFernández, V. and Eichert, T. (2009) 'Uptake of Hydrophilic Solutes Through Plant Leaves: Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives of Foliar Fertilization',Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences,28:1,36 — 68.en_US
dc.descriptionThe definitive version is available at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t713400911en_US
dc.description.abstractFoliar fertilization is an agricultural practice of increasing importance in practical terms. Since nutrient sprays are mostly applied as water solutions, the focus of the article was placed on the penetration of ionic, polar solutes through the leaf surface, although the mechanisms of cuticular penetration of lipophilics are also taken into consideration. In theory, application of foliar nutrient sprays may indeed be a more target-oriented and environmentally friendly fertilization method since nutrients are directly delivered to the target organism in limited amounts, thereby helping to reduce the environmental impact associated with soil fertilization. However, response to foliar sprays is often variable and not reproducible due to the existing lack of knowledge of many factors related to the penetration of the leaf-applied solution. To overcome the current “spray and pray” situation, there is a need to critically analyze the major factors involved and the existing experimental approaches to safely assess the penetration mechanisms, which is the final aim of this review. Beginning with the significance of foliar fertilization in agriculture, a historical overview regarding foliar uptake related studies is given, with especial emphasis on the penetration of solutes through the cuticle and stomata. The existing models of cuticular and stomatal uptake are analyzed separately considering among other factors the physico-chemistry of the solution including the role of adjuvants and the effect of the environment. Methods employed to estimate the process of cuticular and stomatal penetration of solutes are critically assessed. Finally, conclusions related to multidisciplinary research perspectives for improving the efficiency of foliar sprays are drawn.en_US
dc.format.extent333836 bytes-
dc.publisherTaylor & Francisen_US
dc.subjectenvironmental factorsen_US
dc.subjectfoliar penetrationen_US
dc.subjectfoliar spraysen_US
dc.subjectleaf surfaceen_US
dc.subjectphysico-chemistry solutionen_US
dc.titleUptake of Hydrophilic Solutes Through Plant Leaves: Current State of Knowledge and Perspectives of Foliar Fertilizationen_US
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer revieweden_US
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