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Fossil and extant Unionidae of Southeast Asia – Species concepts and radiation patterns

Autor Schneider, Simon; Araujo, Rafael; Böhme, Madelaine; Böhmer, Christine; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Prieto, Jérôme
Fecha de publicación 2010
EditorBayerischen Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie
Citación Zitteliana : Reihe B : Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie 29: 91 (2010)
ResumenAlthough Southeast Asia, well known as a modern biodiversity hotspot, is inhabited by more than 100 unionid species, our knowledge on the taxonomy, biology, and evolution of the freshwater mussels from this area is still relatively poor. This is mainly due to sparse sampling and the corresponding incompleteness of morphological, anatomical, and molecular data. The initial species descriptions, mostly provided by French (Deshayes, Heude, Morelet, Morlet, Rochebrune) and American workers (Lea) in the late 19th century, were often based on limited material, and several of these species have never been re-sampled. Nevertheless, a general evolutionary pattern can be distinguished. Obviously, two separate major radiations that lead to the development of the present day diversity occurred within the two large (palaeo-) drainage areas of the region, i.e. the Yangtze and Mekong river systems. Today, these systems share only a limited number of species, and even several genera are endemic to one of these rivers. Apart from a single, enigmatic member of the family Margaritiferidae (Margaritifera laosensis), all other mussel species of Southeast Asia are assigned to the Unionidae. However, the detailed phylogenetic position of most of the genera and species is still unresolved. Thus, there may be a considerable hidden diversity of freshwater mussels in that area. In our present investigations, we apply multiple methods to address four particular topics. (1) Morphologic, anatomic, and molecular data from Margaritifera laosensis are combined to infer on the phylogenetic position of the species and aim at a reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the entire Margaritiferidae. Today, this family, reaching back into the Mesozoic, is dispersed over Eurasia, northern Africa, and North America with several species living in geographical isolation. (2) A morphometric approach, including Fourier shape and landmark analyses, is used to test current species level taxonomy in Lamprotula. This 25 species rich genus, native to the palaeo-Yangtze drainage system, can be traced back to the Late Oligocene, based on fossils from northern Vietnam. Analysing data from the type series of several extant and fossil species, the relationships among these taxa are evaluated and discussed in light of (palaeo-)geography. (3) Exemplarily, intra- and inter-population variability is addressed in the most widespread species of the genus, Lamprotula leai. (4) The fossil record of Unionidae from the Oligocene of Vietnam and the Pleistocene of southern China is discussed with regard to its relationship to the modern fauna, in particular to the genera Lamprotula, Cuneopsis, Lanceolaria, and Hyriopsis/Cristaria.
URI http://hdl.handle.net/10261/124615
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