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Safe Li-ion batteries built upon porous TiO2 nanostructures and ionic liquid electrolytes

AuthorsAmarilla, José Manuel ; Tartaj, Pedro ; Martínez, Sandra ; Sobrados, Isabel ; Sanz Lázaro, Jesús; Morales, Enrique ; Tonti, Dino ; Torralvo, María José; Enciso, Eduardo
Issue Date10-Jun-2014
Citation17th International Meeting on Lithium Batteries (2014)
AbstractSince Sony commercialized the first Li-ion battery (LIB) in 1992, this technology has steadily grown, and nowadays LIBs are the state of art of commercial rechargeable batteries. In fact, billions of cells are building by year to power portable electronic devices and more recently electric cars (EV and PHEVs). Besides LIBs are very promising candidates to meet the demands of electrochemical storage for renewable energies sources. Widely publicized hazardous incidents and recalls of LIBs have raised legitimate concerns regarding Li-ion battery safety, especially for the large-size LIBs. Most of the commercial LIBs use carbonaceous materials as anodes. Regarding safety, dangerous Li-dendrite grown during overcharge has been reported in carbonaceous-based anodes. Strategies to improve LIB safety are based on the use of anode materials with higher redox potentials than graphite [1] , and replacement of the now used liquid electrolytes with other more safety liquids. Current liquid electrolytes raise safety concerns. These are usually based on flammable alkyl carbonates that can ignite or even explode. Electrolyte chemistry is thus an active area of research in issues related to LIB safety. TiO2 with higher redox potential (ca. 1.7V) than graphite, avoids metallic Li-deposition and notably decreases the electrolyte decomposition [2]. Besides, TiO2 is environmentally friendly, abundant and inexpensive. The main drawback of TiO2-based anodes is the low rate capability resulting from their poor electrical conductivity (ca. 10 10 Scm-1 for anatase) and slow Li-diffusion. Nanosized TiO2 samples are thus essential to reach better performances [3]. Specifically, porous nanostructured electrode materials can be considered as ideal components of electrochemical devices because they combine nanoscale properties with good accessibility, high number of active sites, short diffusion distances and good processability. In this work, we pay particular attention in the electrochemical characterization of porous TiO2 anatase nanostructures based on (i) mesocrystal and (ii) 3D inverse opal arrangements. By carefully controlling experimental conditions we are able to reach performances that are in the line of the best reported for TiO2 based-anodes. Furthermore, we use these refined nanostructures as working electrodes in half-cells that use Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (RTILs) as electrolyte. RTILs exhibit negligible vapour pressure and lack the risks of the conventional electrolytes use in LIB batteries. In this work we also report the electrochemical results of half-cells built upon the more suitable TiO2 samples and RTIL-based electrolytes (liquid and polymeric gel).
DescriptionPóster presentado en: 17th International Meeting on Lithium Batteries (IMLB) celebrado en Como, Italia del 10 al 14 de junio de 2014
Appears in Collections:(ICMM) Comunicaciones congresos
(ICTP) Comunicaciones congresos
(ICMAB) Comunicaciones congresos
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