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Characterization of NW Mediterranean Karlodinium spp. (Dinophyceae) strains using morphological, molecular, chemical, and physiological methodologies

AuthorsGarcés, Esther ; Fernández-Tejedor, Margarita; Penna, Antonella; Lenning, K. van ; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Andrés ; Camp, Jordi ; Zapata, Manuel
Photosynthetic efficiency
Ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate
Issue DateOct-2006
PublisherPhycological Society of America
CitationJournal of Phycology 42(5): 1096-1112 (2006)
AbstractRecurrent fish kills in the Spanish Alfacs Bay (NW Mediterranean) have been detected during winter seasons since 1994, and were attributed to an unarmored, ichthyotoxic, dinoflagellate, initially identified as Gyrodinium corsicum Paulmier, Berland, Billard, & Nezan. Several strains were isolated from the bay and their clonal cultures were compared by combined techniques, including light and electron microscopy, internal transcribed spacer and 5.8S rDNA nucleotide sequencing, and HPLC pigment analyses, together with studies of their photochemical performance, growth rates, and toxicity. Using phylogenetic analyses, all strains were identified as members of the genus Karlodinium, but they were separated into two genetically distinct groups. These groups, identified as Karlodinium veneficum (Ballantine) J. Larsen and K. armiger Bergholtz, Daugbjerg et. Moestrup, were also supported by the other techniques used. Detailed analyses of fine structural characteristics (including plug-like structures in amphiesma and a possible layer of semi-opaque material beneath the outer membrane) allowed discrimination of the mentioned two species. Specific differences in pigment patterns coincided with that expected for low- (K. veneficum) and high-light (K. armiger) adapted relatives. The higher photosynthetic efficiency of K. veneficum and the longer reactivation times of the PSII reaction centers observed for K. armiger were in agreement with this hypothesis. The two species differed in toxicity, but the strains used always induced mortality when incubated with bivalves, rotifers, and finfish. Compared with K. armiger, strains of K. veneficum yielded higher cell densities, but had lower growth rates. © 2006 by the Phycological Society of America.
Description17 pages, 9 figures, 6 tables
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00270.x
Identifiersdoi: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00270.x
issn: 0022-3646
e-issn: 1529-8817
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