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Evolutionary history of the live-bearing endemic allotoca diazi species complex (Actinopterygii, Goodeinae): evidence of founder effect events in the Mexican Pre-Hispanic period

AuthorsCorona-Santiago, Diushi Keri; Doadrio, Ignacio ; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar
Issue Date6-May-2015
PublisherPublic Library of Science
CitationPLoS ONE 10(5): e0124138 (2015)
AbstractThe evolutionary history of Mexican ichthyofauna has been strongly linked to natural events, and the impact of pre-Hispanic cultures is little known. The live-bearing fish species Allotoca diazi, Allotoca meeki and Allotoca catarinae occur in areas of biological, cultural and economic importance in central Mexico: Pátzcuaro basin, Zirahuén basin, and the Cupatitzio River, respectively. The species are closely related genetically and morphologically, and hypotheses have attempted to explain their systematics and biogeography. Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers were used to investigate the evolutionary history of the complex. The species complex shows minimal genetic differentiation. The separation of A. diazi and A. meeki was dated to 400–7000 years ago, explained by geological and climate events. A bottleneck and reduction of genetic diversity in Allotoca diazi was detected, attributed to recent climate fluctuations and anthropogenic activity. The isolation of A. catarinae occurred ~1900 years ago. No geological events are documented in the area during this period, but the date is contemporary with P’urhépecha culture settlements. This founder effect represents the first evidence of fish species translocation by a pre-Hispanic culture of Mexico. The response of the complex to climate fluctuation, geological changes and human activity in the past and the future according to the ecological niches predictions indicates areas of vulnerability and important information for conservation. The new genetic information showed that the Allotoca diazi complex consist of two genetic groups with an incomplete lineage sorting pattern: Pátzcuaro and Zirahuén lakes, and an introduced population in the Cupatitzio River.
DescriptionReceived: August 12, 2014, Accepted: March 10, 2015, Published: May 6, 2015
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124138
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