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dc.contributor.authorEljarrat, Ethel-
dc.contributor.authorGuerra, Paula-
dc.contributor.authorMartínez, Elena-
dc.contributor.authorFarré Urgell, Marinel.la-
dc.contributor.authorAlvarez, Juan G.-
dc.contributor.authorLópez-Teijón, Marisa-
dc.contributor.authorBarceló, Damià-
dc.identifier.citationEnvironmental Science and Technology 43(6): 1940-1946 (2009)en_US
dc.description8 pages, 3 figures.-- Printed version published Mar 15, 2009.en_US
dc.description.abstractSamples of human breast milk (n = 33) from A Coruña (NW of Spain) collected in 2006 and 2007 were analyzed for HBCD diastereoisomers and enantiomers. HBCD was detected in 30 out of 33 human milk samples, at concentration levels ranging between 3 and 188 ng/g lw, with a median value of 27 ng/g lw, showing higher levels than those published for other countries. Diastereoisomeric pattern shows the predominance of the γ-isomer, with low contribution of the α-isomer and the β-isomer being below the limit of quantification. However, in six samples, there is a dominance of the α-isomer versus the γ-isomer. For the first time, HBCD enantiomeric analysis was carried out in human breast milk samples, showing a selective enantiomeric enrichment in human body. As regards α-HBCD, an enrichment of (−)-enantiomer was observed. However, in the case of γ-HBCD, no clear preference for one or the other enantiomer was found. Finally, and based on the calculated HBCD concentrations in human breast milk from Spain, the daily ingestion rate of HBCD was estimated. The nursing infant dietary intake for HBCD was set at 175 ng (kg of body weight)−1 day−1.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research project was funded by the European Union under the "Contaminants in food and feed: inexpensive detection for control of exposure" project (CONffIDENCE, Project 211326). P.G. acknowledges a grant from Department d’Innovació, Universitats i Empresa (2008FI_B 00755).en_US
dc.format.extent88 bytes-
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Societyen_US
dc.subjectHuman breast milken_US
dc.subjectHexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)en_US
dc.subjectDaily ingestionen_US
dc.titleHexabromocyclododecane in Human Breast Milk: Levels and Enantiomeric Patternsen_US
dc.description.peerreviewedPeer revieweden_US
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