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Arbuscular mycorhizal fungi associated with the olive crop across the Andalusian landscape: Factors driving community differentiation

AuthorsMontes Borrego, Miguel ; Metsis, Madis; Landa, Blanca B.
Issue Date5-May-2014
PublisherPublic Library of Science
CitationPLoS ONE 9(5): e96397 (2014)
AbstractBackground: In the last years, many olive plantations in southern Spain have been mediated by the use of self-rooted planting stocks, which have incorporated commercial AMF during the nursery period to facilitate their establishment. However, this was practised without enough knowledge on the effect of cropping practices and environment on the biodiversity of AMF in olive orchards in Spain. Methodology/Principal Findings: Two culture-independent molecular methods were used to study the AMF communities associated with olive in a wide-region analysis in southern Spain including 96 olive locations. The use of T-RFLP and pyrosequencing analysis of rDNA sequences provided the first evidence of an effect of agronomic and climatic characteristics, and soil physicochemical properties on AMF community composition associated with olive. Thus, the factors most strongly associated to AMF distribution varied according to the technique but included among the studied agronomic characteristics the cultivar genotype and age of plantation and the irrigation regimen but not the orchard management system or presence of a cover crop to prevent soil erosion. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the AMF community composition included pH, textural components and nutrient contents of soil, and average evapotranspiration, rainfall and minimum temperature of the sampled locations. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed 33 AMF OTUs belonging to five families, with Archaeospora spp., Diversispora spp. and Paraglomus spp., being first records in olive. Interestingly, two of the most frequent OTUs included a diverse group of Claroideoglomeraceae and Glomeraceae sequences, not assigned to any known AMF species commonly used as inoculants in olive during nursery propagation. Conclusions/Significance: Our data suggests that AMF can exert higher host specificity in olive than previously thought, which may have important implications for redirecting the olive nursery process in the future as well as to take into consideration the specific soils and environments where the mycorrhized olive trees will be established. © 2014 Montes-Borrego et al.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096397
Identifiersdoi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096397
issn: 1932-6203
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