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Fine-tuning of prototype chicken galectins: structure of CG-2 and structure–activity correlations

AuthorsRuiz, Federico M. ; Fernández, Israel S. ; López-Merino, Lara; Lagartera, Laura ; Kaltner, Herbert; Menéndez, Margarita ; André, Sabine; Solís, Dolores; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Romero, Antonio
Issue DateSep-2013
PublisherJohn Wiley & Sons
CitationActa Crystallographica Section D Acta Crystallographica Section D 2013, 69 (9)1665–1676
AbstractThe comparatively small number of members of the family of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins in chicken predestines this system as an attractive model to study divergence of these lectins after gene duplications. Expression profiling of the three homodimeric (proto-type) chicken galectins (CG-1A, CG-1B and CG-2) has raised evidence for distinct functionalities, explaining the interest in a detailed crystallographic analysis of CG-2. As revealed here, marked differences are found in the ligand-binding site and in the contact pattern within the homodimer interface, underlying a characteristic orientation of the two subunits. Notably, a distinctive trimer of dimers that is unique in all galectin crystal structures reported to date forms the core unit of the crystallographic assembly. Combination with spectroscopic and thermodynamic measurements, and comparisons with CG-1A and CG-1B, identifies differential changes in circular-dichroism spectra in the presence of lactose, reflecting the far-reaching impact of the ligand on hydrodynamic behavior, and inter-galectin differences in both the entropy and the enthalpy of binding. This structural information is a salient step to complete the analysis of the full set of galectins from this model organism.
Description37 p-.8 fig.-3 tab.
Publisher version (URL)http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S0907444913011773
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